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Considering all that individuals are facing in today’s economy, it’s not surprising pay day loan professional services is such a speedy-expanding sector. If you find oneself pondering a pay day loan, keep reading to understand more about them and how they may support get you out of a existing economic crisis fast.

Consider very carefully about how much money you want. It really is tempting to have a bank loan for a lot more than you want, but the more income you ask for, the greater the rates will likely be. Not just, that, however, many firms might only obvious you for any certain quantity. Go ahead and take cheapest volume you need.

Get in touch with around and see interest rates and service fees. Most payday advance companies have related fees and rates of interest, but not all. You just might help save 10 or twenty money on your own personal loan if an individual firm delivers a lower interest rate. Should you often get these lending options, the price savings will prove to add up.

The simplest way to use a pay day loan would be to pay out it back in full as quickly as possible. The charges, curiosity, and other expenses related to these personal loans could cause important debts, that is certainly almost impossible to repay. So when you can shell out your loan away, get it done and you should not expand it.

Make certain you read through every one of the fine print, before you apply to get a payday loan. A lot of people get burned by payday advance firms, simply because they failed to read through all of the details before you sign. If you do not fully grasp every one of the terms, question someone close who knows the material to assist you.

Because of so many online payday loans out there, it is best to compare interest rates before choosing which bank loan you are going to use also. Online payday loans have notoriously high rates of interest, yet still, some are beyond other individuals. Try out, and choose a payday loan which offers the best rates possible, so that you can save cash.

The best recommendation you may get about online payday loans is that you simply ought not use that form of personal loan except if completely needed. It is actually not too difficult to acquire a payday advance just by signing your name, however, many unanticipated condition may possibly occur before you can pay it off that will create a much more challenging circumstances.

To save cash in the direction of your cash advance, attempt selling goods at home you never ever use any more through websites like auction web sites and Amazon online marketplace. However, you might not believe you have many useful items to promote, you more than likely do. Look over your reserve collection, compact disc series, and also other electronic devices. Although you may are only able to come up with a couple hundred $ $ $ $, it can nonetheless assist.

Use payday loans just for money urgent matters. Among the benefits associated with a pay day loan is that it permits you to continue to be self-sufficient and deal with your very own budget in private. If you had to acquire the funds from family members or buddies, then you would need to make known your finances, which many people would rather always keep to on their own.

Try not to depend upon online payday loans to fund how you live. Online payday loans are costly, so they should only be utilized for emergencies. Online payday loans are just created to assist you to to purchase unpredicted health care bills, hire repayments or grocery shopping, whilst you wait around for your month-to-month income from your company.

Should you be contemplating taking out a payday advance to repay a different credit line, quit and consider it. It could end up charging you substantially far more to use this technique more than just having to pay past due-payment charges at risk of credit. You will be tied to financial costs, program service fees as well as other charges which are linked. Believe lengthy and tough should it be worth the cost.

As you can tell, pay day loans are certainly not one thing to neglect. Talk about the data you discovered with others. They may also, know what is included in getting a cash advance. Make absolutely certain that when you make the choices, you answer whatever you are confused about. One thing this post ought to have aided you are doing.

Learn extra approximately Jolly Phonics!

Jolly Phonics is a radical basis for analyzing and writing. It makes use of the artificial phonics method of coaching the letter sounds in a way that is a laugh and multi-sensory. Children learn how to use the letter sounds to study and write words.

Jolly Phonics Intensive Professional Training Seminar is an introductory direction to Synthetic Phonics and is primarily based on the principle of Jolly Phonics, presentation of the letter sounds, preparation and advice on the way to enforce the 5 ideas of the approach, testimonies, characters and certainly, a way to use good phonics class in Singapore on a daily basis in the lecture room placing. Although the route is aimed specifically at preschool and number one instructors, it’s miles for all people who would really like to understand extra about the advantages of the usage of Jolly Phonics, whether or not it’s at school or at home and all people is welcome. Also protected inside the training is particular instruction on the way to use the precise Jolly Phonics resources (songs, books, movements, and many others) and there are numerous beneficial examples of ESL- friendly games, sports and thoughts that may be used each day to train the method. All our customers also receive a Jolly Learning Official Certificate of Attendance and are given the hazard to duplicate beneficial assets onto a pen force. We also provide an online guide for the duration of the year.

Learning letter formation: 

It is very critical that a toddler holds their pencil in an ideal manner. The pencil has to be held inside the ‘tripod’ grip among the thumb and first arms. If an infant’s keep starts off evolved incorrectly, it’s miles very tough to accurate later on. A toddler wishes to shape each letter the ideal way. The letter c is added in the early ranges as this bureaucracy the basic shape of a few other letters, including d. Particular issues to look for are the o (the pencil stroke ought to be anti-clockwise, now not clockwise), d (the pencil starts off evolved inside the center, now not the top), there should be an initial down stroke on letters including m and n. In time an infant will want to analyze joined-up (cursive) writing. It facilitates the fluency of writing and improves spelling. When phrases are written in one motion it’s miles simpler to don’t forget the spelling effectively. Jolly Phonics makes use of the Sassoon Infant typeface which is designed for youngsters getting to know to study and write. Many of the letters (such as d and n) have an ‘exit’ stroke on the quilt to make it less difficult to transfer into joined-up writing.

English training for utmost advantage: 

The secondary level lessons can help your infant complete the school schooling and pass out with flying colors. Through the net portal, you could locate both junior stage and senior stage training centers. It is good to realize that a few institutes even conduct N degree, O level, and A degree examinations. Among all of the topics, language takes a look at is most important. English tuition centre in Serangoon provide teachings for one of a kind languages along with English and Chinese. The training center will provide English fulfillment training at the primary and secondary degree. The popular English paper success instructions in the junior university level are intended for teaching English to the students. If there may be any weak spot in the situation, parents and pupils need to remember more coaching inside the English situation. Certain training centers help college students to excel inside the difficulty and cozy the best grades. If you operate English as your second language, there is each risk that you may not be sturdy in it. To have a super hold at the language, enroll your name within the satisfactory lessons center.

Improve written and oral abilities: 

If you’re weak in English, it implies which you are bad in oral and written capabilities. English tuition center will without a doubt coach you in the correct manner to improve your written and oral abilities. Students, proper from Primary stage to the Secondary stage may also get assistance. In the entire global, English is the maximum widely spoken language and is the high medium of conversation. Composition component is crucial because the pupil has to jot down everything at the paper to talk his/her mind. When you’re taking up English education, you’ll be taught the way to write correct English, frame sentences and use accurate grammar. If you’re weak in oral and written skills, you may appear on line for the exceptional English tuition center.

Why You Should Buy Cialis Online

The sexual health of a man’s life concerns sexual gratification and mental health. A man could completely be affected once erectile dysfunction happens. The best thing is that, this can be treated if you buy Cialis online.  Canadian Pharmacy You can purchase other brands of ED treatment yet there are many reasons why Cialis has to be the drug to choose from. Listed here are some great reasons why Cialis is the best one to treat ED for the 35% of men who already have it. Cialis

ED Analysis
You are able to buy Cialis online but you should first know the reason you are getting it. Erectile dysfunction is a disorder which is caused due to hardening of arteries.  This makes flow of blood restriction which could prevent erection. There have been many different types of ED drugs to strike the industry for a long time now so the good thing is that at least ED is no longer a condition that cannot be treated.

Safety
Whenever you will need to to take prescription medication you need to know regarding the safety of the medication itself. Exactly the same type of questions can be asked when you buy Cialis online. The US FDA approved Cialis as a safe and efficient medicine to manage ED. This is something that is not provided to any other medication. The different tests and trials which are performed for Cialis observed its nominal side effects.

Cialis and its effectiveness
Besides realizing where to buy Cialis online, the effectiveness should also be looked into. The usage of Cialis is effective and safe. It also gives you some attributes that other erectile dysfunction treatment does not. Many drugs to manage erectile dysfunction have a limited time when the effects can be experienced. With Cialis, the effects can be felt up to 36 hours after utilizing the medication. You and your partner will surely have a good sexual experience on a weekend break.

The Price Tag
The quantity of serving that should be used is not too many not like the other erectile dysfunction medication you can find if you buy Cialis online. For a weekend encounter, various other drug requires two or three dosages unlike Cialis that should only be consumed once. The best value for the substance is found online. The previously mentioned factors were only a few yet the most significant ones.

Exciting Details Of Online Payday Loans And If They Are Good For You

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You will find fiscal troubles and challenging judgements that many are facing today. Because of the difficult overall economy and growing product or service price ranges, everyone is becoming required to compromise several things. Challenging monetary issues is probably the main motives to acquire a cash advance. The following advice will instruct you on the essentials of methods payday loaning functions.

Find out about the firms supplying payday loans in your area. Never pick a firm just due to a commercial or another advertising you occur to see. Do on the internet investigation, focusing on customer testimonies, prior to give any company your own info. Going through the cash advance method will be a lot less difficult whenever you’re working with a sincere and dependable organization.

A single key hint for any individual searching to get a payday advance is not really to simply accept the initial provide you get. Payday cash loans are not all alike and while they have horrible interest levels, there are a few that are better than other folks. See what sorts of gives you will get and after that pick the best one.

Don’t get to a pay day loan provider unfilled-given. There are particular things you need to take with you when applying for a payday advance. You need a suitable Identification credit card, evidence of business banking information and a few of the recent income stubs. Distinct loan companies ask for various things. To save some time, phone ahead of time and get them what merchandise is required.

You may well be required to supply checking account details once you get a payday loan. Frequently, buyers tend not to desire to discuss this sort of details and might not apply for the financial loans they require. You need to pay back the amount of money at the conclusion of the word, so surrender your specifics.

Don’t lay on the pay day loan software. This could lead to scams, which could damage the chances of you receiving a bank loan and place you in trouble using the legislation.

In case a pay day loan is something you require, make sure you borrow as little dollars as is possible. Men and women usually will need additional money to protect emergencies, but payday cash loans charge a significantly increased rate of interest than a credit card business or even a lender will charge you. Keep costs downward by keeping your volume modest.

When you discover a very good cash advance organization, keep with them. Make it your ultimate goal to construct a history of effective financial loans, and repayments. In this way, you might turn out to be entitled to greater financial loans in the future using this type of organization. They might be more eager to use you, during times of actual have a problem.

When you are looking for a cash advance but have under stellar credit, attempt to get the loan having a financial institution which will not examine your credit score. Nowadays there are plenty of various lenders around that can continue to give lending options to people with bad credit or no credit score.

Seek advice from the Better Enterprise Bureau to find out which payday advance companies are associates or have rating information. Prior to signing nearly anything, get in touch with your local BBB in order to see whether the corporation possessed any grievances sent in from it. Following getting grievances, perhaps you are more well off choosing a different organization to work with.

If you are looking for a payday advance, be sure you locate a adaptable payday financial institution which will work with you when it comes to additional economic difficulties or issues. There are places available that could offer you a tiny extension in paying back the borrowed funds.

Just about we all know about payday cash loans, but possibly have never applied one particular because of a baseless the fear of them. In terms of payday loans, no person must be scared. Because it is an instrument which can be used to help you any person gain monetary stableness. Any fears you could have possessed about online payday loans, must be removed given that you’ve look at this post.

Terms Of Extreme caution With Regards To Payday Cash Loans

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Strapped for cash? Unclear the way to pay the inbound expenses? When you have regarded as a payday advance and require more details, the next post will assist. It has some important ideas into online payday loans, whatever they can provide and the way they could support. Meticulously take into account the information mainly because it pertains to your individual situations.

Feel carefully about how much money you require. It really is luring to have a financial loan for a lot more than you will need, nevertheless the more income you may well ask for, the higher the rates is going to be. Not simply, that, however some firms may only crystal clear you to get a certain quantity. Use the lowest volume you will need.

Look over each and every cost that you’re going to have to shell out when you get a payday advance. Being informed about the charges will provide you with a concept of just how much you undoubtedly are obligated to pay. Consumers are shielded by several rate of interest restrictions. Sadly, costs can bypass these polices. This situation might put a whole lot to the price tag on your loan. Your necessity for this cash advance might be far better determined with the right information and facts.

Payday cash loans may help in an emergency, but recognize that you may be charged fund fees that may equate to practically 50 % curiosity. This massive rate of interest can make paying back these loans difficult. The cash will likely be subtracted starting from your income and will power you correct into the cash advance business office for further funds.

You can find state legal guidelines, and regulations that specifically protect online payday loans. Frequently these companies have found ways to work about them legitimately. If you do subscribe to a payday loan, tend not to feel that you will be able to get out of it without having to pay it away entirely.

Before completing your payday advance, read through all of the small print from the deal. Payday loans can have a lots of legal words concealed with them, and quite often that legitimate terminology can be used to face mask hidden charges, great-listed past due service fees along with other things that can eliminate your pocket. Before you sign, be smart and know precisely what you really are putting your signature on.

Pay day loan companies are actually collecting in terms of areas and in many cases loan possibilities, so they may be extremely luring to suit your needs. They feature a little bank loan with proof of work with out track record verify. It is a very brief-word financial loan. Interest rates are extravagant on these short term lending options, but they are an effective resource for individuals in need of assistance when utilized intelligently.

If you require a cash advance, but use a a low credit score record, you might want to look at a no-fax loan. This kind of financial loan is just like some other cash advance, except that you will not be asked to fax in virtually any paperwork for approval. That loan in which no papers are involved implies no credit rating verify, and much better chances that you are accredited.

Simply how much do you want to are obligated to pay in addition to whatever you obtain? The costs on these loans are really substantial. Failure to pay for the loan promptly can lead to additional fees and penalty charges.

Do not allow a lender to chat you into utilizing a new financial loan to get rid of the total amount of your previous financial debt. You will definitely get trapped paying the service fees on not merely the very first loan, nevertheless the secondly also. They are able to rapidly discuss you into accomplishing this over and over before you pay them more than five times what you had at first obtained within just service fees.

When you’re trying to obtain payday cash loans, you have to give the lender a few different contact numbers. They want your property amount, cell along with the variety to your function. Along with these cell phone numbers, most creditors may also require a few additional personal references.

There exists practically nothing like the pressure of being unable to pay bills, especially should they be earlier expected. You might be now a lot more prepared to take care of this situation with understanding, so use what you discovered on this page to move forwards within a beneficial way.

Bubble Film Machine

Three layers Air Bubble Film Machine

bubble film machine
  air bubble film sheet

This aircrew adopts the disposable shaping craft. it is our company that draws domestic and inter national advanced technology extensively,through a great deal of production practices in having ordinary equipment originally, develop, designing,Can produced polyethylene compound bubble (cushion)membrane in succession.designs science,practical,rational in structure of the machine. 

1. This model can produce 2-3 layer bubble film.
2.  Suitable for a wide spectrum of material including
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3. Bubble size from diameter of    6mm to    32mm,
    according to requirement.
4. Automatic winder optional, which could greatly
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Main Technical Variables:Model

KDPEG-1000 KDPEG-1200 KDPEG-1500 KDPEG-2000

Main&minor Screw Dia.60mm/50mm 65mm/55mm 85mm/65mm 95mm/70mm

Film width:1000mm 1200mm 1500mm 2000mm

Output:120kg/h 160kg/h 180kg/h 250kg/h

L/D:28:1 28:1 28:1 28:1 

Optional equipment:
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Athens – What To See And How To See It

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There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.

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Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi

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Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.

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The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena

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Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.

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Ancient History – Athens

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Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).

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