Deciding On The Best Business For The Payday Cash Loans

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Contemplating everything that individuals are facing in today’s economic climate, it’s no wonder pay day loan providers is really a speedy-expanding market. If you discover yourself thinking about a pay day loan, please read on for more information on them and how they can support allow you to get out of a recent economic crisis quick.

Ensure that you keep a version of your respective payday loan contract. By doing this, if anything goes completely wrong, you will possess written evidence of the terminology which you agreed to. Payday loan businesses sometimes make mistakes, like taking funds from your checking account before the agreed upon payback date. Consequently, it is essential that you will have a version of the pay day loan agreement, so that you can question any errors.

Avoid getting more than one cash advance at one time. It is prohibited to get multiple cash advance from the very same salary. Additional problems is, the inability to repay a number of different lending options from various loan providers, from a single paycheck. If you cannot pay off the loan by the due date, the charges, and curiosity carry on and improve.

A greater substitute for a payday loan is usually to start off your own personal crisis bank account. Invest a little bit cash from each salary until you have a great quantity, such as $500.00 approximately. Instead of building up the top-fascination costs that the payday advance can incur, you might have your personal payday loan appropriate at your financial institution. If you have to use the dollars, get started saving yet again right away if you happen to will need crisis cash later on.

As you are completing the application for online payday loans, you happen to be sending your personal details over the web with an unidentified destination. Being conscious of this may help you protect your data, such as your sociable security quantity. Do your homework concerning the financial institution you are thinking about well before, you deliver something over the Internet.

When you would like a payday loan company, ensure that you have a look at several enterprise well before settling using one. When you assess the charges and fascination percentages, you will recognize that they differ from organization to organization. Ensure that they are not compensating for reduce fascination, by charging you extra costs in certain other way.

The best recommendation you will get about online payday loans is that you should never use that kind of loan unless of course totally needed. It is relatively simple to acquire a payday advance just by signing your name, however some unpredicted situation might arise before you can pay for it that will create a much more tough circumstance.

Should you require a payday advance, you might want to look at reevaluating your budget or fiscal practices. Though a cash advance can definitely be described as a lifestyle-series, you must not be dependant upon them as well frequently. You must learn how to manage cash smartly, and in a way that contributes to economic durability, instead of continuing difficulty.

Understand the regulation. Visualize you are taking out a payday advance to get paid back with by the next pay time. Unless you pay the bank loan back again by the due date, the lending company can use how the check you used as security whether or not you will have the money in your account or otherwise. Outside your bounced examine costs, there are claims the location where the lender can declare 3 x the quantity of your original check out.

The easiest way to take care of pay day loans is to not have to take them. Do your greatest to save lots of just a little funds every week, so that you have a something to slip again on in an emergency. If you can help save the funds on an unexpected emergency, you may eliminate the need for utilizing a cash advance services.

Attempt eating meals from your own home. You will be surprised at just how much you can help save by setting up clean food in your house. If you make considerable amounts and refrigerate, you could have sufficient to nibble on for several days. Even though eating dinner out is easier, you will wind up paying more income. This will likely truly support with regards to paying down your payday advance.

Will not have a loan for almost any more than you can afford to repay on your after that pay out period of time. This is a good idea to help you spend your loan back whole. You may not wish to shell out in installments since the interest is so great that this can make you owe considerably more than you obtained.

Even though you must not use pay day loans being a principal approach to spend your debts as a result of high rates of interest, they could be a great support if you need cash easily and possess not any other choices. Remember the suggestions in the following paragraphs, so that you can use payday cash loans sensibly.

What You Need To Know About Online Payday Loans

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Online payday loans can be quite a real lifesaver. When you are considering trying to get this particular personal loan to see you through a financial pinch, there could be several things you must consider. Keep reading for some helpful advice and insight into the possibilities available from online payday loans.

For people who will need funds right away and possess not any other choices, a cash advance could be a life saver. Try out your very best to know each of the regards to the financing before you sign anything at all. Payday loans fee very high interest rates and charges, which can make it tough to shell out all the cash back.

When you get the initial payday loan, ask for a discounted. Most payday loan workplaces offer a payment or price lower price for initially-time borrowers. When the spot you want to obtain from is not going to offer a discount, contact close to. If you find a price reduction in other places, the money spot, you need to go to will most likely match up it to get your small business.

If previous payday loans have triggered problems for you, useful assets are available. Attempt a selection of their totally free solutions to help you get reduce rates so that you are able start to pay your loans again completely.

Before you take out a cash advance, be sure to comprehend the settlement terms. These lending options have high interest rates and rigid penalty charges, and the rates and charges only increase in case you are late building a payment. Usually do not sign up for that loan before fully examining and learning the phrases to prevent these complications.

If you require a payday loan, but possess a a bad credit score background, you really should consider a no-fax personal loan. This type of financial loan is the same as some other payday advance, except that you will not be asked to fax in every paperwork for authorization. A loan where by no files are participating implies no credit score examine, and odds that you are approved.

If you want to take out a payday loan, have the tiniest amount you can. While correct crisis situations do take place, paycheck loan providers cost a whole lot attention that you will be better off finding funds elsewhere when you can. Extremely high-interest personal loans can be hard to repay when you use an excessive amount of money.

If set on acquiring payday cash loans, assessment all information prior to signing an agreement. Be cautious, some scam payday loan web sites take your own information, then acquire cash from the bank account without consent.

Should you need a pay day loan, but have a bad credit background, you really should think about a no-fax personal loan. This sort of personal loan can be like any other pay day loan, except that you will not be required to fax in virtually any papers for approval. That loan exactly where no files are participating means no credit verify, and better odds that you may be accepted.

Get in touch with the pay day loan firm if, you have a issue with the repayment plan. Anything you do, don’t disappear. These firms have relatively aggressive collections sectors, and can often be difficult to manage. Well before they think about you delinquent in pay back, just contact them, and tell them what is happening.

Only use the money that you just really need. For example, when you are battling to repay your debts, then this money is clearly needed. Nonetheless, you should never ever obtain money for splurging functions, like eating out. The high interest rates you should pay out in the future, is definitely not really worth having cash now.

Experiencing as how you ought to be a payday advance specialist you should not sense confused about what is included in payday loans anymore. Just be sure you use exactly what you read nowadays whenever you decide on payday loans. You are able to stay away from having any issues with the things you just figured out.

Phentermine 37.5 mg Diet Pills – Typical Questions Responded

Overweight issues a lot of a folks on this planet because of it might still bring about severe medical conditions such as diabetic issues, cardiovascular troubles, stop snoring, despression symptoms, and osteo arthritis. In order to out of this issue is to control the growing weight load using healthful eating, compounded by some very good weight loss pills along with a stringent conditioning plan. Generally, it is primarily the combination that actually works for most of us. But, this informative article specializes in the fat burner – organic Apettite supressants 37.5 mg  – and replies number of common queries that most people tend to request in an attempt to realize much more about the substance. We imagine you doubt also features in the solutions down below.
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Organic Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  is a No Prescription Apettite supressant 37.5 mg  that is pretty safe and natural. It’s discovered to stir up number of or no side effects inside the wearer’s physique. It attains outcomes by quelling urge for food and increasing metabolic rate, thereby burning up aside those added calories.
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The common substances of natural Phentermine 37.5 milligram  are Acetyl D-Carnitine, Camellia Sinensis, Green Tea, Acidity, Piper Nigrum, Bioperine, Alpha dog Lipoic, and Biotin.
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A single product every day as well as in a special afternoon. If you build any discomfort, reduce the serving to a single.
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To an magnitude, yes! Even though using herbal Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams from http://phentermine.veteransunemploymentbook.com, you may not feel that significantly hungry, which often usually takes a single to the situation of cravings for food. But, after the natural Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  intake is halted, likelihood is there the user may possibly get back on that old practice of overeating as the physique again commences to answer victuals like prior versions ahead of. For this reason, in the event you cease herbal Apettite supressant 37.5 mg  after sacrificing a couple pounds, much better figure out how to take control of your predatory instincts that ask to get a belly total each day.
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The most important additionally with plant based Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  is it is clear of unsafe chemical compounds or ingredients like Citrus aurantium or Ephedrine. It is one of the most secure natural weightloss pills available today.

Exciting Details Of Online Payday Loans And If They Are Good For You

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You will find fiscal troubles and challenging judgements that many are facing today. Because of the difficult overall economy and growing product or service price ranges, everyone is becoming required to compromise several things. Challenging monetary issues is probably the main motives to acquire a cash advance. The following advice will instruct you on the essentials of methods payday loaning functions.

Find out about the firms supplying payday loans in your area. Never pick a firm just due to a commercial or another advertising you occur to see. Do on the internet investigation, focusing on customer testimonies, prior to give any company your own info. Going through the cash advance method will be a lot less difficult whenever you’re working with a sincere and dependable organization.

A single key hint for any individual searching to get a payday advance is not really to simply accept the initial provide you get. Payday cash loans are not all alike and while they have horrible interest levels, there are a few that are better than other folks. See what sorts of gives you will get and after that pick the best one.

Don’t get to a pay day loan provider unfilled-given. There are particular things you need to take with you when applying for a payday advance. You need a suitable Identification credit card, evidence of business banking information and a few of the recent income stubs. Distinct loan companies ask for various things. To save some time, phone ahead of time and get them what merchandise is required.

You may well be required to supply checking account details once you get a payday loan. Frequently, buyers tend not to desire to discuss this sort of details and might not apply for the financial loans they require. You need to pay back the amount of money at the conclusion of the word, so surrender your specifics.

Don’t lay on the pay day loan software. This could lead to scams, which could damage the chances of you receiving a bank loan and place you in trouble using the legislation.

In case a pay day loan is something you require, make sure you borrow as little dollars as is possible. Men and women usually will need additional money to protect emergencies, but payday cash loans charge a significantly increased rate of interest than a credit card business or even a lender will charge you. Keep costs downward by keeping your volume modest.

When you discover a very good cash advance organization, keep with them. Make it your ultimate goal to construct a history of effective financial loans, and repayments. In this way, you might turn out to be entitled to greater financial loans in the future using this type of organization. They might be more eager to use you, during times of actual have a problem.

When you are looking for a cash advance but have under stellar credit, attempt to get the loan having a financial institution which will not examine your credit score. Nowadays there are plenty of various lenders around that can continue to give lending options to people with bad credit or no credit score.

Seek advice from the Better Enterprise Bureau to find out which payday advance companies are associates or have rating information. Prior to signing nearly anything, get in touch with your local BBB in order to see whether the corporation possessed any grievances sent in from it. Following getting grievances, perhaps you are more well off choosing a different organization to work with.

If you are looking for a payday advance, be sure you locate a adaptable payday financial institution which will work with you when it comes to additional economic difficulties or issues. There are places available that could offer you a tiny extension in paying back the borrowed funds.

Just about we all know about payday cash loans, but possibly have never applied one particular because of a baseless the fear of them. In terms of payday loans, no person must be scared. Because it is an instrument which can be used to help you any person gain monetary stableness. Any fears you could have possessed about online payday loans, must be removed given that you’ve look at this post.

Terms Of Extreme caution With Regards To Payday Cash Loans

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Strapped for cash? Unclear the way to pay the inbound expenses? When you have regarded as a payday advance and require more details, the next post will assist. It has some important ideas into online payday loans, whatever they can provide and the way they could support. Meticulously take into account the information mainly because it pertains to your individual situations.

Feel carefully about how much money you require. It really is luring to have a financial loan for a lot more than you will need, nevertheless the more income you may well ask for, the higher the rates is going to be. Not simply, that, however some firms may only crystal clear you to get a certain quantity. Use the lowest volume you will need.

Look over each and every cost that you’re going to have to shell out when you get a payday advance. Being informed about the charges will provide you with a concept of just how much you undoubtedly are obligated to pay. Consumers are shielded by several rate of interest restrictions. Sadly, costs can bypass these polices. This situation might put a whole lot to the price tag on your loan. Your necessity for this cash advance might be far better determined with the right information and facts.

Payday cash loans may help in an emergency, but recognize that you may be charged fund fees that may equate to practically 50 % curiosity. This massive rate of interest can make paying back these loans difficult. The cash will likely be subtracted starting from your income and will power you correct into the cash advance business office for further funds.

You can find state legal guidelines, and regulations that specifically protect online payday loans. Frequently these companies have found ways to work about them legitimately. If you do subscribe to a payday loan, tend not to feel that you will be able to get out of it without having to pay it away entirely.

Before completing your payday advance, read through all of the small print from the deal. Payday loans can have a lots of legal words concealed with them, and quite often that legitimate terminology can be used to face mask hidden charges, great-listed past due service fees along with other things that can eliminate your pocket. Before you sign, be smart and know precisely what you really are putting your signature on.

Pay day loan companies are actually collecting in terms of areas and in many cases loan possibilities, so they may be extremely luring to suit your needs. They feature a little bank loan with proof of work with out track record verify. It is a very brief-word financial loan. Interest rates are extravagant on these short term lending options, but they are an effective resource for individuals in need of assistance when utilized intelligently.

If you require a cash advance, but use a a low credit score record, you might want to look at a no-fax loan. This kind of financial loan is just like some other cash advance, except that you will not be asked to fax in virtually any paperwork for approval. That loan in which no papers are involved implies no credit rating verify, and much better chances that you are accredited.

Simply how much do you want to are obligated to pay in addition to whatever you obtain? The costs on these loans are really substantial. Failure to pay for the loan promptly can lead to additional fees and penalty charges.

Do not allow a lender to chat you into utilizing a new financial loan to get rid of the total amount of your previous financial debt. You will definitely get trapped paying the service fees on not merely the very first loan, nevertheless the secondly also. They are able to rapidly discuss you into accomplishing this over and over before you pay them more than five times what you had at first obtained within just service fees.

When you’re trying to obtain payday cash loans, you have to give the lender a few different contact numbers. They want your property amount, cell along with the variety to your function. Along with these cell phone numbers, most creditors may also require a few additional personal references.

There exists practically nothing like the pressure of being unable to pay bills, especially should they be earlier expected. You might be now a lot more prepared to take care of this situation with understanding, so use what you discovered on this page to move forwards within a beneficial way.

Bubble Film Machine

Three layers Air Bubble Film Machine

bubble film machine
  air bubble film sheet

This aircrew adopts the disposable shaping craft. it is our company that draws domestic and inter national advanced technology extensively,through a great deal of production practices in having ordinary equipment originally, develop, designing,Can produced polyethylene compound bubble (cushion)membrane in succession.designs science,practical,rational in structure of the machine. 

1. This model can produce 2-3 layer bubble film.
2.  Suitable for a wide spectrum of material including
     LDPE , LLDPE and recycled PE.   
3. Bubble size from diameter of    6mm to    32mm,
    according to requirement.
4. Automatic winder optional, which could greatly
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Main Technical Variables:Model

KDPEG-1000 KDPEG-1200 KDPEG-1500 KDPEG-2000

Main&minor Screw Dia.60mm/50mm 65mm/55mm 85mm/65mm 95mm/70mm

Film width:1000mm 1200mm 1500mm 2000mm

Output:120kg/h 160kg/h 180kg/h 250kg/h

L/D:28:1 28:1 28:1 28:1 

Optional equipment:
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Athens – What To See And How To See It

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There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.

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Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi

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Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.

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The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena

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Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.

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Ancient History – Athens

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Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).

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